The Different Types of Two Way Radio

A two way radio is also known as a transceiver. These radios are used for both for sending and receiving data or signals. These radios can either work on analog technology or a digital technology. When analog technology is used in these radios, the transmission can be done clearly even for very weak signals. However, in analog technology, only one thing can be done at any given time i.e. data can either be vent or received. When digital technology is used, data can be sent and received simultaneously and also more data can be sent.

Two way radios come in two styles. These are duplex and simplex styles. In the simplex radio, only one channel can be used at any instance of time. This means that only one person can send data at a time. The most popular type of a simplex radio is the walkie talkie. The duplex radio is the one in which different channels are used for transmission of data. This means that any given time, the use can both send and receive data but using two different channels.

The two way radios are generally of two types. These are Family Radio service, FRS, and General Mobile Radio service, GMRS. The family radio service is mainly used as a personal radio that facilitates two way communications. The range within which these radios can operate is two miles. These two way radios operate on very low frequencies that allow people in close proximity to communicate with each other. These radios are not suitable for a long range communication. These radios also have special bands on which they operate and are not so powerful that they can be used on a daily basis. In addition, these radios operate the best in a line of sight. These radios cannot operate very effectively when there is an obstruction or the terrain is not plain. These types of radios cannot work well in mountains. The family radio service radios are very affordable as they mainly cater to the needs of the families. They also have features best suited for personal needs.

The general mobile radio service radios are fast replacing the family radio service. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that the general mobile radio service radios can be effectively used for communication over long ranges. These can operate within a range of 20 miles. These radios also operate the best when there are no obstructions and the terrain is plain. These two way radios cannot be efficiently used in hilly areas. These radios are very powerful and are best suited for use in military organizations. These types of radios are expensive and a user also requires a license to operate these radios.

These radios come with a lot of features. Most of these radios these days have a feature that tells about the weather. These also have features that can be used for navigation purposes. These 2 way radios are generally hand held and easy and convenient to use and operate.

Sirius Radio – Everything You Ever Wanted to Know

Sirius radio, or more generally satellite radio, came out just a few years ago. If you’ve never listened to satellite radio or heard about it, this article is your lucky break. In this article you’ll find out what satellite radio is and how it works.

What Is Satellite Radio?

Just like the name indicates, satellite radio uses satellites and related equipment to broadcast radio channels to car or home radios. The concept really received its impetus in 1992 when the FCC set aside a chunk of radio frequency for what they called Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS). Five years later, Sirius Radio and XM Satellite Radio purchased licenses from the FCC, and both companies started putting the pieces into place to be able to start broadcasting.

Conventional radio waves can only travel 35 to 45 miles before they die out. The signal for satellite radio services is broadcast more than 20,000 miles above the Earth’s surface. Programming on satellite radio is subscriber based, meaning you pay a monthly fee to descramble the signal from the satellites. But, most satellite radio service comes commercial free, so you don’t have to worry about channel hopping. Channels include music, talk radio, sporting events, kids programs, and news.

The Who’s Who of Satellite Radio

There are currently three major players in the satellite radio game: Sirius radio, XM satellite radio, and WorldSpace. Sirius radio covers North America, including the continental U.S., Canada, and Alaska. XM provides service in the continental U.S. WorldSpace is developing coverage in other parts of the world (Asia, Africa, Europe, and South America) and are definitely the most ambitious in terms of client coverage (a potential of 4.6 billion clients covered on 5 different continents). Each company uses different satellite technology and methods to provide service in their respective areas.

Satellite radio equipment, such as car receivers and home stereos, are sold at a variety of consumer electronic stores, and are starting to become standard installations in new cars. Conventional radios cannot receive satellite radio transmissions, so picking up the service usually entails purchasing a receiver, though some kits are available to make conventional radios satellite-radio compatible.

Because of the different technology each company utilizes, receivers are not compatible with every company. For example, if you subscribed to XM but then wanted to switch to Sirius radio, you would need to get a new receiver that was compatible with Sirius. Some satellite television companies include satellite radio service in their channel packages, and you can receive the transmission through your television satellite dish.

How Does Satellite Radio Work?

This is the cool part. The music, talk show, sporting event, etc., are recorded digitally in a studio, after which the message is encoded. The encoded signal is sent to the satellites from ground stations (Sirius radio based in New York; XM based out of D.C.). The satellites then relay the signal to receivers in your car or at home. The receivers contain chipsets that decode the signal and play it through you stereo. In urban areas where taller buildings might block the signal from the satellites, ground repeaters or transmitters are used to resend the signal, eliminating pockets of dead space.

XM uses two satellites to cover the continental United States with their signal. Sirius radio uses three satellites to form a satellite constellation. The way they are set in orbit ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours at a time covering the U.S. and that there is always at least one satellite over the U.S. at any given time. WorldSpace satellites beam three signals each to increase the amount of territory they are able to cover with their three satellites. All three companies have reserve satellites ready to launch in case one of their satellites stops working.

Satellite radio technology looks like it’s here to stay. It is ideal for those that live in areas where normal radio reception is poor, or for those willing to pay a little each month to not have to listen to commercials. Chances are good that soon every new car you buy will have satellite radio installed, and that more and more homes will be equipped for it. I have only covered the basics. It is definitely worth your time to find out more about what each company has to offer.

Two Way Radios : A Beginner’s Guide

A two-way radio is a device which transmits and receives voice signals through the air. They work somewhat like a telephone, but since they do not require a central network they can be used anywhere! With two way radios, two or more people can have a discussion no matter where they are — sometimes while they are miles apart! Another common name for a two-way radio is a “walkie talkie”.

The most common type of two-way radio for regular consumers is the FRS/GMRS two-way radio. These are the radios that you typically see in the big-box stores. FRS and GMRS are the different frequency ranges, or channels, that these radios can operate on. The FRS channels are 8 though 14 and the GMRS channels are 15-22. Channels 1 through 7 are shared, and are used by both the FRS and GMRS systems.

All radios in your group will need to be set to the same channel before you can communicate. For example, if your radio is set to channel 7 it will send your voice over that channel when you talk, and it will listen for and allow you to hear other people talking on channel 7. It is always important to remember that these channels are public! Always be careful what you say over a two way radio, because you can never be sure who is listening.

When choosing a channel, privacy and range should be your primary concerns. If you are using a FRS only channel, because of government regulations your radio will only broadcast at a maximum of .5 watts of power. This wattage will typically get you between half a mile, and one mile of range. If using a GMRS channel, you can get the maximum output power and range out of your two-way radio. However, if you are using a GMRS channel, you are required by the FCC to purchase a license to operate on those frequencies.

As far as privacy goes, if you choose a channel and notice that there are others using the same channel, you should switch to a different channel to avoid confusion. Sometimes, such as at a crowed amusement park, 22 channels just aren’t enough to provide privacy. Because of this, most mid range radios and up also provide “Privacy Codes,” which break up a single channel into anywhere between 38 and 121 sub-channels. When you figure in the privacy codes, many radios offer over 1000 individual channels for you to choose from.

Some two-way radios operate on AA or AAA batteries. You will also find that many of the radios come with rechargeable battery packs and desktop chargers. If you buy a model with a rechargeable battery pack, you will get the convenience of the rechargeable batteries and plus, you will still be able to operate them with regular batteries if your battery packs happen to drain before you get them back to their chargers.

There are many good uses for a two-way radio, but they can come in especially handy on family vacations or outings. Have you ever taken a trip to an amusement park or a ski trip and somehow got separated from your friends or family? A two-way radio would have been very helpful to locate one another. How about taking more than one car on a road trip? A two-way radio would be a great means of communication between vehicles.

Another popular sport in which two-way radios can play a big part is hunting. Hunters are always in need of some sort of communications device to keep in contact with one another throughout the woods. The avid hunter can now even find two-way radios in camouflage color!

The major brands of two-way radios include Motorola, Cobra, Midland, Kenwood and Uniden. You can find radios from these manufacturers in all different ranges of output power and distance. There are all different types of features out there you can get with your two-way radios as well. Many two-way radios even support the NOAA weather channels. There are also lots of accessories you can find for your two-way radios including headsets, handheld speakers, earbud receivers, and throat mics. A lot of these you can even operate hands-free as long as they, and the radios, are VOX capable. You can now even buy car chargers for your two-way radios!

It is no doubt that two-way radios have come along way over the years. Most people have found them impossible to live without, just like cell phones! From starting out at a maximum range of about 2-5 miles, you can now find them with maximum ranges of up to 14 miles! Next time you are on the go with friends or family, make sure you’re prepared and take a two-way radio along. They may just prove to be pretty handy.

Introduction to Satellite Digital Audio Radio service(SDARS)

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS):

SDAR is a satellite-based direct-broadcast radio service in which
digitally encoded audio entertainment material is broadcast to
Earth-based receivers, either directly from an orbiting satellite, or from the satellite to
the receiver via a repeater station (This is a special case in which the receiver is in a
shielded location). SDARS is a radio communication service through which audio
programming is digitally transmitted by one or more space stations directly to
fixed, mobile, and/or portable stations, and which may involve complementary
repeating terrestrial transmitters, telemetry, tracking and control facilities.
Through SDARS compact-disc quality audio is available because of digital transmition
is employed.

History of Satellite Radio:

Satellite radio is an idea over a decade long. In 1992, the U.S.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a spectrum in the
“S” band (2.3 GHz) for nationwide broadcasting of satellite-based
Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS). Only four companies applied for a
license to broadcast over that band. The FCC gave licenses
to two of these companies in 1997. CD Radio (now Sirius Satellite Radio) and
American Mobile Radio (now XM Satellite Radio) paid more than $80 million each
to use space in the S-band for digital satellite transmission. The first satellite based radio launched by XM on Sep 25, 2001, then followed by Sirius on July 1, 2002.

At this time, there are three space-based radio broadcasters:

    Sirius Satellite Radio
    XM Satellite Radio
    WorldSpace Satellite Radio

Importance and significance of Satellite radio:

We all have our favorite radio stations that we preset into our car
radios, flipping between them as we drive to and from work, on errands
and around town. But when you travel too far away from the source station, the
signal breaks up and fades into static. Most radio signals can only travel about 30
or 40 miles from their source. On long trips that find you passing through
different cities, you might have to change radio stations every hour or so as the signals fade in
and out. Now, imagine a radio station that can broadcast its signal from more than 22,000 miles (35,000 km) away and then come through on your car radio with complete clarity. One could drive
nearly hundreds of kilometers without ever having to change the radio station! Not
only would you never hear static interfering with your favorite tunes, but also the
music would be interrupted by few or no commercials.

Satellite radio companies are comparing
the significance of their service to the impact that cable TV had on
television 30 years ago. Listeners won’t be able to pick up local stations using
satellite radio services, but they will have access to hundreds of stations offering a
variety of music genres. Each company has a different plan for its broadcasting
system, but the systems do share similarities.

XM Satellite Radio, Sirius Satellite
Radio and WorldSpace satellite individually provides digital-audio
radio services (SDARS), with commercial-free programming, digital-audio quality, and
countrywide coverage. Each company offers nearly 100 channels of digital music and
talk radio (many of them commercial-free or with a reduced number of commercials)
that can be received from coast to coast with no service interruption. Each
offering number of music channels, these services clearly provides programming options
not available through traditional radio.

One of the main feature of SDARS is SDARS provides almost Commercial free (or Commercials are restricted) programs. And also it provides news, weather forecasts, and sports apart from
entertainment-based programs The primary application for this service is constant coast-to-coast coverage of radio for cars. We have all experienced the problem of trying to listen to radio on a long trip. Both AM and FM stations fade in and out as we drive into and out of their coverage
area. Portable full satellite radio service available now a days for
the car, home stereo and personal radio environments. Car manufacturers have been installing satellite radio receivers in some models for a few years now, and
several models of portable satellite radio receivers are available from a variety of
electronics companies.

Signal reception is generally poor as well as variable in the cases of AM or FM. With the SDARS systems, radio coverage throughout the 48 continental states is solid and continuous. Unlike
for AM and FM channels SDARS signals are available in a unique format

Subscription based radio service:

Because the technology requires access to a commercial satellite for
signal propagation; Satellite Radio services are commercial business
entities (not private parties), which offer a package of channels as part of their service
–requiring a subscription from end users to access its channels. Satellite
Radio Service can be subscribed at a monthly fee of $12.95 U.S. and up which
is very much worth full to the service that it gives.

Future of Satellite radio:

SDARS seems to get good market growth because of the following factors. Increasing
partnerships of XM and Sirius with Automobile OEM and distribution outlets made the
SDARS more popular. Introduction of more convenient hardware smaller and more
portable radios for the automobile as well as the home stereo,
computer and office and personal environments made possible at the
same time.

Home and personal use Industry promotional advertising and
awareness campaigns given the SDARS more popular. Sirius and XM now
also offer subscribers the option of listening to their programming
online. Apart from all of this,
price drop of hardware making it more affordable for after market purchase.

Author can be contacted through for more
information about SDARS.

What is Satellite Radio?

Satellite Radio – Its here! Satellite radio is a new service being offered by two companies, XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio. Both companies are offering over 100 channels of streaming music and entertainment. High quality sound is achieved through the use of satellites orbiting high above. Satellite radio has been commercial free and free from regulations by federal committees. The impossible, is now possible, hearing the same radio station across north America and from coast to coast. All made possible by XM satellite radio and Sirius satellite radio. Find more at:

XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio have designed satellite broadcast systems that differ but they achieve the same high quality of satellite radio. A milestone of this success is the fact that satellite radio signals that are available across the United States and into Mexico and Canada. Rock and Roll – No its not a genre any more! XM Satellite Radio has two satellites named Rock and Roll which remain in parallel geostationary orbit to provide radio coverage throughout the United States. Sirius Satellite Radio has chose to use three satellites in an inclined elliptical orbit. This configuration provides 16 hours per satellite of signal, which gives a great redundancy if any satellite were to fail. Playing it smart, Sirius and XM both have spare satellites, which can be called on in a moments notice if needed.

XM satellite radio and sirius satellite radio have Earth based broadcast stations that are used to send up information to the satellites, which is then dispersed through out the globe. Sirius and XM both have disk jockeys that manage, create and program music which is then sent up to the satellites. The information is then taken in by the satellites and sent through a rebroadcast of the streams to earth. The Major advantage of this is that, unlike earth-based radio stations whose signals reach listeners 150 miles away, satellite radio signals have a huge reach, and are receivable anywhere within the continental United States and hundreds of miles in each direction of the borders. Satellite Radio is growing to become a world wide network and offerings are growing throughout the world. XM satellite radio and Sirius satellite radio are making it happen!

So How Does Satellite Radio Work: First, a receiver decodes and plays the received signals through an antenna. In the beginning, some cars have used a tuner that accepts the antenna signals and then passes them to a satellite radio-ready radio for playing. Ad the concept has grown out of the car and into the home, home kits for satellite radio use direct RCA inputs for home theater and traditional stereo systems. A Growing number of choices is occurring and each company is developing a broad scope of products for consumers. Already we are seeing receivers for car-only, boom boxes, computer-only, and portables for use in car and home configurations. The companies making these products are, Audiovox, Delphi Skyfi, Terk, and plenty others are jumping on board. Both XM satellite radio and Sirius satellite radio have licensed receivers and other products for consumers use.

Are You Ready for Direct Response Radio Advertising?

These Six Questions Tell You How to Make the Answer “Yes”

Direct response radio advertising is an amazingly under recognized way to grow a business quickly and profitably. For one thing, it’s fully accountable, so every dollar spent can be tracked to the revenue it generates and unprofitable spending can be eliminated. In addition, it’s extremely scalable. Once you figure out what works, you can increase your revenues and profits simply by increasing your media spend. It’s nearly as easy as stepping on the gas pedal. Direct response radio advertising is truly a powerful engine for profitable growth.

When it is done properly.

Most of the time, radio advertising is not done right. The first step in “doing radio right” is not to do it until you’re ready. The questions in this article will help you determine whether you’re ready to take advantage of direct response radio advertising. If you’re not ready, this article will tell you the steps you need to take to get ready.

Do you know how you will define success?

How much, in profit, is each customer worth to your business over the course of that customer’s relationship with your company? This is the customer lifetime value question and it is vital to know this before you go into direct response advertising. Why? Because the definition of success in direct response radio advertising is acquiring a new customer at a cost that allows for a profitable relationship with that new customer. If you don’t know the lifetime value, you cannot know how much you are able to pay to acquire a customer.

Think about the day when you run your first ad schedule on a station. The results come in. How do you know whether they are good or bad? Are they good because there is revenue? Are they good because the phone is ringing or because visits to the web site went up? These are not sufficient to understand and evaluate the performance of your advertising. You can only evaluate advertising performance within the context of your customer lifetime value.

But knowing your customer lifetime value is not enough. You have to break this down into the metrics that you’ll use to evaluate and manage your campaign. These metrics are part of the formula for lifetime value, metrics like “cost per lead” (CPL), cost per order (CPO, also known as CPA or cost per acquisition), conversion rate, and average revenue per sale. Do not begin a direct response radio advertising campaign (or a business of any sort using any kind of demand generation tactics) until you know your business profitability metrics very well.

Are you prepared to test?

We have often heard people say “We tried radio advertising and it doesn’t work for us”.

Here’s the problem with that statement: Developing a profitable direct response radio advertising campaign isn’t something that is accomplished with a “trial”. It is far too complicated an endeavor, with far too many variables, to assess its effectiveness for your business with a “trial”. There are creative variables and media variables, and together they present a daunting number of possible combinations to achieve success.

To properly assess the potential for direct response radio advertising to generate profitable new customers for your business, you must approach direct response radio advertising with a testing mindset. That calls for a patient, methodical approach.

What does this mean for you? It means that you need around $20,000 to test multiple ads over a 4-8 week period before you’ll know which approaches will (and won’t) yield more profitable results. Don’t go into direct response radio advertising with a “dabble” mindset. Go into it with solid business goals: a) To assess the potential of direct response radio advertising to drive profitable new revenues, and b) to understand which approaches – both creative and media – produce the best results for your company. While you’ll generate revenues and profits during the test, the real benefit of testing is in the learnings that can be applied to a larger campaign over a long period of time to drive significant sales and profits.

Do you have a compelling offer?

The offer in your direct response radio ad is one of the most important elements for success. But why do you need to be thinking about that before you even approach radio advertising? Isn’t that something your radio advertising agency should come up with? Well, yes, but… The “but” here hinges on the fact that any offer must be something that’s possible given the business profitability structure, and possible given the systems and processes that run the business. These are constraints that only you know about. It will take time to alter existing systems or processes should that be necessary to support a compelling offer in your advertising. Your agency might recommend you give away a free DVD player with each order. That would drive a lot of orders, but would they be profitable? You need to define the playing field for the agency and then engage in the dialogue of getting the most out of what’s possible given the constraints.

What is a compelling offer? It’s different, it’s relevant, and it’s meaningful. A free complimentary product or service is a good example. For example, if you’re marketing a skin care product that fights acne, you can give away a skin softener product as a bonus. Others use free trials with conversion mechanisms. These can work well provided the product performs as promised. Still others employ the ‘risk free trial’ approach, which essentially positions the 30 day money back guarantee as an offer – a “risk free trial”. The possibilities are many.

Is your business infrastructure set up to support direct response advertising?

The most important aspect of preparing for direct response radio advertising is ensuring you’re ready for the volume of leads and orders that can result. The easiest way to project this is to know your CPL and CPO projections (see above) and then assume a specific weekly media spend. For example, say you’re running $25,000 in media per week in direct response radio. This is considered a relatively small campaign. If your business model shows that you expect a CPL of $15, then you’ll be driving 25,000/15 = 1667 calls per week. Can your sales call center and fulfillment center handle this volume? More importantly, can they handle more, because when you’re profitable while running a $25,000 weekly radio campaign, chances are you’ll soon want to grow to five to ten times that size as soon as you can.

There’s another vital piece of infrastructure you absolutely must have in place before you begin direct response radio advertising. It is a firm requirement because without it you’re wasting your money and ruining your reputation with the vendors you’ve hired to help you build the campaign. That requirement is excellent data collection and transmission to the radio media buying department at your radio agency. By this we mean that you absolutely must have a mechanism for capturing the lead, order, and revenue data by the unique identifier (such as the toll-free phone number) for the media buy that generated the call. If you’re sending calls to a call center, this is no problem. They understand this need and are already set up to accommodate it. If you’re trying to take calls in house, most of the time you’ve got work to do to ensure you can provide your media company with the information they need on a timely basis (usually first thing every morning). If you are sending leads to a web site, which is happening with increasing frequency, you must set up data capture and transmission mechanisms via a web tracking software program like Google Analytics before the campaign begins, preferably before you even contact a direct response radio advertising agency to get started. It’s amazing how many times we’ve been told that this tracking mechanism is in place and that we’ll get daily data exports from the web tracking software, only to begin the test and find out we won’t be receiving data for many days and what we do receive will not be complete.

Are you aware of your biases and assumptions?

This question probably sounds a little different than the rest but it’s well worth spending some time on. What you must understand is that you, the client, lead the show. As the agency, we will tell you want we recommend based on our expertise in the field of direct response radio advertising. It’s up to you to make sure we’re making those recommendations with all of the necessary information. Biases and assumptions can damage this important aspect of the client-agency relationship.

Biases and assumptions underlie beliefs you have about key campaign questions like why your customers buy from you, or what appeals in advertising will resonate with the target audience. If you inject these into the process as facts, your agency will likely take them as such. The agency is unlikely to argue strongly with you – – it’s just the nature of the “the customer is always right” tendency in client-agency relationships (as well as many others).

Let’s say you’ve been advertising online with banners and pay per click (or with TV or with print – the medium doesn’t matter). You want to test radio. One common mistake is to do a survey of your existing customers and ask them why they buy. The results show that the reasons these people buy match up very well with the appeals in the advertisements that you’ve been running. You conclude that the exact same approach will work in radio and you require that approach be followed by the agency. But you’ve overlooked the fact that your survey was very biased. Why? Because the people you surveyed were prompted to become customers by the ads you ran. Of course you’re going to find people who validate the ads you’ve run – they responded to them to become customers! The non-biased way to do a survey is to collect data from a random sample of people (not current customers) matching the target customer profile.

Notice the point is not to eradicate your biases or assumptions, but to become aware of them. It’s nearly impossible to get rid of biases. However, if you’re aware of them you can then test them methodically and you won’t be in danger of leading your agency down the wrong path – one that often leads to the failure of radio campaigns.

Are you different?

Me-too products or services don’t work, period. In direct response you find this out quickly. You must be different. One important twist to this is that you can be different in any one of a number of different ways. As a certain marketing professor liked to say “you can innovate anywhere in the value chain…the more places the better”. Did Dell Computer make innovative new computers? Not at all. Dell found a way to put computers together faster, with higher reliability and at a lower cost than any other PC maker. That, among other things, translated into a super low cost structure which meant Dell could beat competitors on price and still make more money than those competitors. There are other examples. Maybe you’re marketing a product in the diet aid category. There are “support” food programs (Weight Watchers), pills (Trimspa) and informational/diet regimens (the Atkins diet).

Do you have to have the latest breakthrough pill to compete? That would be nice but there are only so many of those to be discovered. So you can be different in another way. Your spokesperson could be a celebrity. Your marketing angle could be radically different. Your offer could be unique. Your cost structure or overall business model might allow for an incredible free gift or a very low price. Your customer retention program might be so strong that you can give away a free trial to acquire large numbers of customers. There are many, many ways to be different. How you’re different – while important – is still second to the fact that if you’re a me-too product you’ll not last long.

Your Options for Buying a Satellite Radio Player

Americans are slowly changing the way that they listen to music. Instead of listening to limited radio stations that are sometimes filled with commercials, people are now getting their music through satellite radio.

Sirius and XM are the top suppliers of satellite radio. To listen to this amazing, commercial free programming all listeners will need a satellite radio player. If you are interested in making the switch from traditional radio programming to satellite radio then you have four options when it comes to selecting a player.

(1) Satellite Radio Players for the Car

When you are in your car, how often do you turn the radio on? Since the majority of Americans listen to music when they are in their vehicle, satellite radio players for the car are always in demand. Satellite radio players that are designed for cars often come in two varieties. There are some players that can be inserted where a traditional car radio goes. These players would require a mounting plate. Circle or other shaped players can be mounted on the dashboard or the ceiling of vehicle.

The average price for satellite radio players designed for the car is between $70 and $150.

(2) Portable Satellite Radio Players

In addition to satellite radio, other advancements in music include Ipods and MP3 players. These products are popular because they are portable. One thing that many individuals, maybe even yourself included, do not know about satellite radios is that some of them are also portable. These portable players are most commonly used when exercising or traveling on foot.

The average price for a portable satellite radio is between $200 and $350.

(3) Home-based Satellite Radio Players

Satellite radio players that are designed for home are similar to the above mentioned players; however, they are often stationary. Home-based satellite radios come in a wide variety of different designs. The different design options make it possible to match a player with a particular home d├ęcor color or style. Due to the size of most home satellite radios, they are often unable to be used in vehicles or as portable players.

The average price for a home-based satellite radio player is between $100 and $400.

(4) AllinOne Satellite Radios

If you are music lover then it is likely that the above mentioned satellite radio players appealed to you, but what if all of them did? Purchasing a satellite radio player for the home, vehicle, and another one to take with wherever you go can get fairly expensive. All-in-one satellite radios are a solution to that potentially expensive problem. All-in-one satellite radios are small enough so they can be transported whenever you go and they can also be used in the home or in your car.

The average price of an all-in-one satellite player is between $150 and $350.

The features found on a satellite radio player will all depend on the manufacturer; however, there are some common product features. The majority of satellite radio players come with rechargeable batteries, full color displays, channel presents, a remote control, and song storage. Portable players are likely to come with headphones and a belt clip. Satellite radios that are designed for the vehicle are likely to come with stands, suction cups, and other dashboard accessories.

If you are interested in subscribing to a commercial-free satellite radio service then you will need at least one of the above mentioned satellite radio players. Of course, you have the final decision when it comes to selecting a particular player, but you should know that all-in-one satellite radio players are now the most popular. All-in-one satellite radios give you the ability to hook the player up to your car speakers, your speakers at home, or your headphones. To most Americans, the features are well worth the price.

5 Things to Consider When Buying a Shortwave Radio

1. Cost: Hobbies can get as expensive as we let them. Shortwave radio listening is not as popular in the United States as it is in many other parts of the world. In all honesty, at times the prices of shortwave receiver sets in the United States can seem a little steep for what you are actually buying. This might be due at least in part to the fact that a good portion of amateur and shortwave radio dealers in the United States tend to rely on government purchases for revenue. Even so, choosing a good shortwave receiver to be your primary workhorse needn’t break the bank. Although there is no shortage of expensive radio gear, there are currently a few quality portable shortwave radios available to residents of the United States for affordable prices. Fortunately, at this point in history people living inside the United States are not required to pay a receiver set license fee for shortwave radios as citizens residing elsewhere such as Europe might have to in order to fund public broadcasting. Today the prices of new shortwave radios in the United States range anywhere from around $40 or so for compact handheld receivers to upwards of several thousand dollars for advanced monitoring devices.

Finding the right shortwave receiver for your needs and budget first requires defining what you hope to be able to hear with your radio and how much that you are willing or able to spend. Prices of medium sized portable shortwave radios at present in the United States range anywhere from just over $100 to around $500. Many of these middle of the road shortwave receivers tend to offer a good variety of features and functionality along with a price tag that is bearable for most who are serious about putting their radios to work. Something to consider when budgeting for a shortwave radio is that, while additional equipment is not necessarily a requirement for one to be able to log shortwave broadcasts, having a decent external antenna can make all of the difference in the world for reception. Crafting homebrewed antennas is part of the fun for shortwave radio hobbyists. Provided that you are willing to use your head and do a little soldering yourself, the price of such projects can be determined by the cost of materials or plans. Commercially available antennas come in many different forms and configurations. For less than $100 in today’s prices a tuned dipole or compact active antenna can be attained.

2. Quality: There are many different shortwave receivers on the market. Not all of them were built to last and, in some extreme cases, even work properly right off the shelf. Avoiding being stuck with a lemon by making the effort to do some homework before making a purchase can greatly increase your chances of finding shortwave radio listening to be a rewarding hobby from the start. As most salespeople would agree, it is generally accepted that you get what you pay for. This is quite often the case but is not always true. The quality of a shortwave radio is ultimately dependent on the manufacturer and it stands to reason that there are many business models in existence that attempt to produce maximum financial gain from minimum input.

Talking to other shortwave hobbyists or doing some detective work on your own are good ways to learn about the pros and cons of different shortwave radio models, their reliability, as well as personal experiences with shortwave equipment dealers. Participating in radio related internet forum discussions or going to radio club meetings can be a way to educate yourself. Reviews can be a helpful way to become familiar with many of the available features of various shortwave radio models as well as the quirks or undesirable aspects of particular radio sets. However, it is important to understand that some reviewers might give an opinion regarding a product which is biased because of their own interest in somehow making a profit from your purchase. Therefore, taking in more than one or two reviews as well as talking to more experienced shortwave hobbyists is highly recommended as a means to gauge the quality of a particular shortwave radio set, manufacturer or distributor.

3. Functionality: Aside from the ability for a particular radio to connect to and utilize various different external antennas, perhaps the most important defining aspect of a shortwave radio’s capacity is limited by the frequencies which it can receive. When selecting a shortwave radio it is a good idea to make sure that it is capable of receiving in the different modes where transmissions that you would like to monitor occur. The term “shortwave” has a broad scope and is generally used to refer to high frequency (HF) communications consisting of multiple “bands”, or portions of the radio spectrum. Most commercially available shortwave radios provide access to the frequencies where large commercial shortwave stations transmit public broadcasts. However, some radio monitoring hobbyists like to log aircraft, marine activity, or utilities such as beacons and may require special receivers which include frequency coverage which permits doing so. It is important to note that the definition of shortwave bands can vary and not all shortwave receivers cover the entire HF radio spectrum. Some shortwave radios include coverage of bands where ham radio transmissions occur and many receivers include air traffic bands which are considered to be very high frequency (VHF). Due to the popularity of medium wave (MW) AM and FM radio stations, access to the commonly used bands may be included in the coverage of shortwave receivers.

Most of the real optional bells and whistles incorporated into modern shortwave radios are aimed at tuning methods. A lot of the specialized options related to shortwave tuning deal with being able to pull out or eliminate specific signals. For some time now shortwave radios which utilize digital features have included options of tuning in varying steps such as 1, 9, or 10 kHz. For the most part it is a matter of personal preference whether your shortwave radio has a keypad for digital entry, a dial for tuning, or both. Some high end shortwave receivers may even feature a remote control with both a keypad and a dial. There are radios which offer phase locked loop (PLL) circuitry and others that incorporate digital signal processing (DSP) into tuning in order to improve reception. One feature considered valuable to listeners of shortwave radios who seek out more than just the large commercial or national broadcasters is single sideband (SSB) capability. SSB signals are an efficient way to transmit and receive and are often utilized by smaller broadcast stations. Provided that the frequencies are available, a shortwave radio which features SSB functionality may be used to listen to long distance transmissions from ham radio operators and smaller independent broadcasters, as well as the occasional pirate operator.

Other aspects of functionality worthy of consideration when choosing a shortwave receiver include the type of display, methods of tuning, and ability to store preset frequencies by memory. Most shortwave radios above the very low cost handheld models tend to have a digital display these days. Display may feature a light or offer a utilitarian menu which enables access to the radio’s features.It is not vital to understand the ins and outs all of the additional features available in shortwave radios to find a basic set which is suitable the needs of most beginner hobbyists. By first gaining an understanding what you would like to listen to and then making sure that you will not be limited by your choice of equipment you should be able to ensure that you are satisfied with your purchase.

4. Size: Commonly available shortwave radios for personal use come in sizes ranging from pocket or handheld models to tabletop sets. Handheld shortwave radios can be as small as the size of a wallet which enables portability with ease. Depending on the model, pocket sided to medium sized shortwave receivers are for the most part very well suited for use in a wide range of places. Medium sized shortwave radios can be taken along when traveling as they are easy to pack in luggage and the built in antennas are often sufficient for acceptable reception of transmissions by large international and domestic broadcasters. Medium sized receivers also make for good side table companions in bedrooms and many of them even tend to come with built in alarm clock features.

Larger tabletop shortwave radio sets are typically for stationary use and, although they are probably not the best suited place to set your cup of coffee on, they can be big enough that they can easily collect stacked clutter on their flat surface areas. Despite having adopted the old ham radio terminology of “boat anchor” as a nickname due to their larger size and heft, many modern tabletop shortwave receivers offer all kinds of additional functions and features as well as improved ergonomics when compared to more compact radios. The size of a shortwave radio can affect its functionality due to the omission or inclusion of basic characteristics such as the presence of a built in antenna, external antenna connectibility, or features including frequency coverage. Although there may be a few exceptions, larger tabletop shortwave radios do not typically have built in antennas and are intended for use in environments where listeners have the space required to install a longwire or dipole antenna of some sort or another. Active antennas do make it possible for sophisticated tabletop sets to be utilized in smaller settings and provide an alternative space saving solution but in some cases they can be costly and might not be considered ideal. Many smaller shortwave radios do not have connectors which permit them to be readily interfaced with external antennas requiring plug in type jacks. However, many have used the argument that giving up a few options in a small receiver is a small sacrifice for being able to carry broadcast voices from around the world in the palm of your hand.

5. New or used?: Lets face it, who wouldn’t like to buy a new shortwave radio set if given the choice? However, as the current economic climate might be trying to teach some of us, sometimes being frugal and bargain hunting can serve to lead to an improved quality of life. Even so, from time to time seeking deals that are too good too be true can result in unnecessary hassles when poor quality or irreparable faulty radios are passed on. Some people collect radios as if they were baseball cards. Occasionally extreme radiophiles and avid collectors give in to pleas from family members to make space around the house and cash in on their excesses. Eventually we all pass away and if relatives have no use for the equipment we have collected it ends up in an estate sale. Many avid radio collectors and hobbyist shortwave listeners simply like to wheel and deal. There are plenty of places to find used shortwave radios including internet forums, auctions, established shortwave radio dealers and swap meets such as hamfests.

When considering whether to buy a new or used shortwave radio, the type of warranty offered by the manufacturer or dealer may either add some comfort to the deal or, if non-existent, may increase the amount of risk you are taking. Radio repair shops do exist and they are usually found in conjunction with established dealers or manufacturers, although repair can be costly and, in some cases its availability is dependent on the make of equipment. For many years we have been living in a society that has fostered and encouraged built in obsolescence. In some cases, radio repair is simply not cost effective. Buying a new radio can and should keep you out of repair shops for at least long enough to get settled into shortwave radio listening as a hobby. Taking good care of your equipment and making good choices when purchasing it can help to prolong and ensure that the lifespan of your shortwave radio well exceeds the time it takes to open the box it was shipped in.

Two Way Radios – How to Choose The Best Walkie-Talkie for Your Business Needs

Two way radios can add thousands of dollars to your bottom line in the first year by saving as much as 5-9% of labor time. Make absolutely sure you select the right radio for your needs the first time.

Walkie-Talkies were introduced into typical business practices decades ago. Technology and battery engineering made them cumbersome and difficult to use in everyday applications. However, 2-way radios were recently made super-affordable, more portable and were given a much improved battery life. Combine these advancements with the ability to save countless labor-hours, cost-free talk time and you have one of the most promising bottom-line tools for just about any business.

The key to getting the most out of your two-way radios is to make absolutely certain you choose the correct model the first time you buy your radios. Many small businesses make the mistake by starting off using Family-FRS radios. Typically, these will work out great for the first month. Invariably however, these radios will begin to lose the battery charge, the clips will break off, the speakers will cease to function after a few drops, and the entire radio will need to be replaced within a relatively short period of time. These FRS radios were simply not designed for regular, daily use. They were manufactured almost as toys, and are meant to be used gently a few times per year. Further, according to FCC guidelines, it is a violation to use FRS radios in a business function.

The proper two-way radio makes all the difference in the world. For the most part, any small to upper-medium sized company can benefit from the use of today’s walkie talkies. The cost will typically range from $120 per radio to about $300 each. Improvements in battery design will get a full day use after an overnight charge for as much as 2-3 years of daily use. Plus, the durability of the radios has improved so much that it is not unheard of for some radios to still work great after 10 years.

There are four basic elements to consider in choosing the right radio for your job:

VHF vs. UHF – The difference between UHF and VHF can be explained with frequency penetration. VHF waves travel about twice the distance of UHF waves on open ground, rolling hills or through foliage. However, VHF waves are very poor at penetrating walls, buildings and rugged terrain. So, if you are working exclusively outdoors with open land, rolling hills or heavy trees, VHF radios are the best. In any other situation, including indoor to outdoor use, UHF radios will be the choice. UHF and VHF radios will not communicate with each other.

Power – If the radios will be used within a single building, or outdoors in less than about 1 mile, then a 1-watt radio will be sufficient. If the 2-way radios will be used to communicate between multiple buildings or for up to 2 miles, then a 2-watt radio should be used. There are 4 and 5 watt radios that will communicate consistently at further distances, but there is a limitation to any radio-to-radio communication. Once exceeded, the only way to proceed is through the use of a repeater.

Channels – If your entire group will always be speaking on the same channel at the same time, o matter how many radios you have, you will only need a 1-channel radio. However if you manage, say, a restaurant and you want the valets to be on one channel and the wait-staff to be on another channel, then you will want a 2-channel capable radio system. This will allow each group to communicate individually, but not talk over each other. For you, as the manager, to be able to communicate with both of the groups you will want a radio that “scans”. This will allow you to speak with either group by switching to the appropriate channel automatically.

Durability – Business radios range anywhere form units that are designed for restaurant and hotel use, to radios for heavy-duty military operations. Review the specifications on each unit to determine the best fit for your needs.

By selecting the proper elements in choosing your initial radios, you will be assured of starting off on the right foot communication-wise. You will gain all of the benefits of having two-way radio communication, but will avoid the common pitfall of having to replace old radios that will not work with what should have been used in the first place.

How To Get “Radio-Active” PR For Your Non-Profit Cause: Part Two of Three


Here are five basic methods of fitting your group into the programming at
radio stations:

1) Spot messages

2) Feature stories

3) News

4) Interviews

5) And becoming a reporter.

Here are details on each method.

Spot Messages

Spot messages are short public-service announcements that most stations are
required to carry as part of their license agreement. Getting a spot is not
difficult; you must simply fulfill the program manager’s criteria for the types of
charitable organizations the station is willing to sponsor.

If you are approved, some radio stations will write the public information spot
for you. You need supply only the grist, the basics about your cause and your
organization, and perhaps some flesh -and-blood examples of how you’ve

But don’t count on getting such assistance. In the majority of cases, the staff is
too busy to do this work for you. And even at stations where they’re prepared
to help, supplying them with copy that requires minimal alteration makes it
more likely your spot will eventually get made and aired.

If you need to write your own spots, here are basic tips for making your spot

1. First, remember that spots are typically only a minute long, so the message
must be conveyed in a tightly wrapped form, with the accent on getting the
listener’s attention from the very outset.

2. Spot messages can be informational, telling listeners about the problem
your organization seeks to alleviate and how you go about doing it. In this
case, you need to accent the human dimension of things: a story about
someone you’ve helped, or an individual volunteer’s experiences, for instance.

Alternatively, a spot message can be motivational, urging listeners to get
involved and help give the problem a cure. These kinds of spots demand a tone
of enthusiasm and challenge. They’re pitched directly at the listeners,
summoning them to respond personally.

The appeal should be frank, candid, direct, yet upbeat, not an exercise in guilt-
tripping. “You have what it takes to help a child in need,” is a good example of
a positive way to appeal to someone’s best instincts.

In contrast, a downbeat tone, intended to shame people into helping your
cause, doesn’t conform well with the radio medium: People are listening for
enjoyment and entertainment, and a public information spot that hits a
discordant tone is likely to cause irritation- a switch of the radio dial.

3. No matter what station the promotional spot will run on, keep the language
conversational. Don’t write in long, run-on sentences. Use short, active
phrasing. (“We want to hit a home run against hunger,” for instance. Not: “The
societal disorders evidenced by homelessness should give us all pause for

4. Write with directness to take advantage of the immediacy of radio. Speak to
listeners as if they were your friends. Be personal and friendly, projecting a
relationship between your organization and your listeners with liberal use of
words like “you” and “yours.”

5. Avoid jargon, slang, acronyms, or unfamiliar words that might cause people
to scratch their heads instead of focusing on the important things you have to

6. If the radio station runs your spot, be sure to write a note of thanks. “Station
personnel are like everyone else,” says Pete Weitzner of Century Cable. “They
like to feel appreciated, and organizations that show appreciation are more
likely to be helped by people at the station again in the future.”

Feature Pieces

Feature pieces are another form of programming that can provide you an
opening to a station. Your feature piece could be an interview or a report on an
event you are sponsoring in your community. Feature pieces are usually more
analytical and in-depth than spots or news stories.

If you identify a local radio station that does occasional features, call to find
the names of the producers who oversee them. Write to these people about
your project, and the social problem you are covering. Give solid examples of
people being assisted by your efforts. Say that you would be happy to help the
station with your experience and expertise should they be interested in doing a
feature dealing with your issue.

As with newspapers, I also recommend following up your letter with a phone
call, telling the producer you “just wanted to make sure” the letter arrived, and
you’d be happy to answer any questions he or she might have.

Again, as with follow-ups for standard press releases, it’s useful to have
additional noteworthy facts to offer when you make phone contact, to spark
more interest.

Feature stories are most interesting when they include real people. If there’s
someone whose life has been turned around by your charitable organization,
that’s the kind of story people like to hear-and radio can convey it effectively.
So make sure the producer knows if there is such a potential story about your

News Stories

A charity can be proactive in its approach to radio news, attempting to
generate news stories about itself with press releases. Those releases should
be geared to the style of radio news writing, which gets the basic point of the
story across in the first sentence or two, adds some descriptive imagery, and
ends fairly quickly.

There is also the possibility that your organization’s work could be mentioned
in the context of a “hard news” story. In fact, when you write to the radio-
station producer for any reason, you might gain a special advantage by linking
your organization’s story with a topical story in the news that week or month.
“If your message can be wrapped into a news story … that catches a
programmer’s eye, he or she is likely to add it to the end of an announcer’s
newscast,” writes Marty Schwartz, vice president of sales at New USA, a public-
relations firm in Virginia. “Of course, not every message can be … successful.
There has to be some news value or public-service value inherent in the
message. If it just a ‘product’ pitch, programmers will make their own pitch-
into the circular file-and be sore that you wasted their time. So this is where
some creative thinking about how it can be presented is really valuable.”

Even if an expanded feature program doesn’t fit into the station’s schedule, a
producer or news director who finds your story interesting might see the
opportunity to broadcast an interview with you, or to let someone in your
organization interview someone else involved with the charity.


Radio interviews can be divided into three broad categories.

1. The first is akin to feature reporting-a longish interview, conducted by
someone with the station, in which the subject matter and general questions
are known in advance. Such exchanges can even be scripted. But authenticity is
enhanced when there is some spontaneity, so it is better to request a format in
which you don’t stick to a text, but only to an overall framework of questions
that have been agreed to in advance.

2. There is the interview conducted by the charity itself. While these can be
effective, especially if done with leeway for ad-libbed conversation to boost
credibility, there is something more authoritative for many listeners when a
station employee conducts the interview.

3. There is the news interview conducted by a reporter. These can be the most
intimidating exchanges for the interviewee, because the questions aren’t
reviewed in advance, so you have to be quick on your feet in answering.

If you have an opportunity to choose among these various formats, the one
that usually offers the most potential to show you and your organization to
best advantage is the first, because it is more relaxed and you’re usually given
a chance to know what you’ll be asked about and to frame your responses in

If you are interviewed, it is recommended that you try to get to know the
interviewer before the tape actually starts rolling. This will help you relax
during the interview itself. When the interview is under way, don’t step on the
interviewer’s questions, and pace yourself in your answers.

And when it is over, make sure get a recording of your appearances, just as
with any print stories that appear about your organization, you should collect
your radio “clips”-i.e., record your appearances-and assemble a little cassette
of your best sound bites. These can be used for an “audio press kit” to help
line up future radio appearances.

Becoming a Reporter

A last way you can gain access to radio is to become something of a reporter
or commentator for a station in your area. If you play your cards right, you can
turn into a station’s local expert, who is called on whenever news relating to a
specific issue arises.

Gary Millspaugh, executive director of the Allentown Rescue Mission in
Allentown, Pennsylvania, knows the value of becoming a resource to a radio
station. “I attended the Presidents’ Summit on volunteerism in Philadelphia,” he
says. “I thought hard in advance about how to turn that trip into publicity for
our rescue mission, which serves up to eight hundred homeless men per year,
and has a 70-percent success rate in getting people out of the debilitating
problems that led them to the streets. Our graduates get into jobs and a
responsible, self-sufficient life.”

To turn his trip to the Summit into more than just a jaunt to Philadelphia, he
called his contacts at major radio stations (he is meticulous, he says, in always
nurturing relationships with key people in the local media) and he let them
know that he would be attending the Summit and could offer first-person
perspective. His efforts won him two rounds of publicity.

First, he got coverage prior to the Summit for being a local service-provider
who would be going to the event. Second, he got publicity while he was in
Philadelphia. After President Clinton’s speech, for instance, Gary called one of
the largest Allentown-area stations, and was put on the air during drive-time
(the afternoon “rush hour,” when listenership is highest). “I basically became
their on-the-scene commentator on the president’s speech and the Summit,”
he recalls.

This kind of vigorous courting of the media is “essential” for any charity that
wants “to survive in the incredibly competitive world of nonprofits today,”

Gary argues. “The inescapable fact is that if you’re a nonprofit or a charity,
you’re engaged in a competitive activity. You have to view it as competitive. As
rough as it might sound, you’re in a win/lose proposition. If you don’t put your
resources to a winning use, you’ll lose-and be out of the business of helping

If you’re as successful as he was in winning an opportunity to become sort of a
freelance reporter on a social issue, keep in mind some basics of radio
journalism. Facts should be conveyed clearly and accurately. Keep your
sentences short. Use words that carry color and meaning. Make the
chronological presentation orderly and understandable.


In addition to the above methods of getting your message on the radio, there
is also an entire world of talk radio that offers you instant access to the

In fact, talk radio offers excellent possibilities for organizations with a socially
significant message, especially if you have someone in your organization who
can be seen as an expert in a field.

(Ironically, the more you appear on talk radio, the more you become an expert,
as one’s expertise usually gains a heightened status from being on the radio.)

One advantage of some talk-radio shows is that their audiences may be more
affluent, with more money to invest. This observation should perk up ears
among charities and nonprofits looking for donors.

But while talk-radio provides fertile ground for publicity, you should still
remember that radio stations operate not to perform charity but to generate
ratings so they can make money.

So they’re not going to invite a spokesman for a charitable group on who has
nothing interesting to talk about.

They’re not going to devote their time to conversations about next weekend’s
fundraising car wash.

This means that your creativity is highly tested if you seek to get on talk radio,
just as with all other aspects of promotional campaigns. When you contact a
radio station producer to suggest focusing on something that has to do with
your nonprofit cause, the producer is going to ask what’s unique and
interesting about your subject: What is it that will grab listeners and keep them
from pushing another button on the dial?

That’s the question you have to ask yourself about every idea you consider
pitching to any media outlet. You have to be able to answer it again and again
during your marketing efforts. If you can’t answer it, you have no business
doing promotion in the first place.

One wonderful advantage of radio today is that you don’t have be in the studio
to perform your part. You can be on the phone, calling from your office, car, or
from across the country. You are simply “patched in” to the show, with the
audience knowing nothing about where you are located.

Interviews on talk-radio programs can vary from fifteen min to an hour in
length. On many shows, guests are also asked to take calls from listeners.

If you have an opportunity to be on a talk, how, it is useful to give your host a
list of ten to fifteen questions that you would like to be asked.

Although there is no guarantee your questions will be used, many hosts
appreciate having your questions supplied because they interview such a wide
variety of guests that they can’t be well-versed on all the subjects under
discussion. Your questions therefore act as pointers and cues that make them
look intelligent and knowledgeable.

On the other hand, be careful about getting too scripted. When an
organization seeks to get on talk shows, it is best to choose the person among
its staff or officials who is most knowledgeable and articulate about the group
and its work and can ad-lib.

Many shows like to be flexible, taking a diversion from the announced subject.
After all, nothing runs as smoothly when it’s scripted. The worst shows are the
ones where they just read off a list of questions. So be sure your spokesperson
is comfortable talking on his or her feet.

Here are a few additional pointers for targeting talk radio.

o To increase your chances of being on radio stations around the country,
submit your name and organization’s project to Newsmaker Interviews, a
publication to which dozens of radio stations across the country subscribe. It
lists potential guests and their topics in detail.

o Another publication to consider is The Yearbook of Experts, Authorities
and Spokespersons, which provides an “encyclopedia of sources” to
subscribing hosts and producers from media outlets nationwide. It has a Web

Talk-radio producers are heavily worked, almost always busy lining up guests
and arranging the logistics of each program. You might not reach a producer
the first time you try calling. Persistence is usually required.

o When you call a talk-radio producer, show that you know something
about the program by mentioning a recent topic or guest.

o Try to link your idea with some issue or event that’s in the news. Most
producers look to the headlines first in trying to line up show topics.

o If you can inject controversy into your topic, you have an advantage in
trying to get a guest spot. Talk radio generally thrives on dramatic issues and
exchanges. It isn’t supposed to be sleep-inducing.

Look for the third part of this article, next week.